Note Lectures:
Lecture 1: Intro to Animating with Maya Lecture 9:
Lecture 2: Keyframing, Graph Editor, Playblast Lecture 10:
Lecture 3: Digital Audio Lecture 11:
Lecture 4: Audio, Projects, Hierarchy, Principles Lecture 12: Camera Moves and Positions
Lecture 5: Rendering, After Effects Lecture 13:
Lecture 6: Ball Bounce Lecture 14:
Lecture 7: Path Animation Lecture 15: Principles of Animation
Lecture 8: Lecture 16: Making a Playable DVD

Lecture 1: Introduction to Animating in Maya

Keyframing:

Manipulating the keys in the timeline:

Moving a keyframe

  • Click a little bit before the the keyframe you want to select
  • Shift Drag it to select the key frame
  • Grab it from the middle and drag the new location

    Cutting a keyframe
  • Click the keyframe you want to select
  • Right Mouse Button (RMB) and select Cut

    Copying a keyframe
  • Click the keyframe you want to select
  • Right Mouse Button (RMB) and select Copy

    Pasting a keyframe
  • You need to already have a keyframe in memory from Cutting or Copying it previously
  • Go to a new frame and Right Mouse Button (RMB) select Paste

    Selecting a range of keys in the timeline:


  • Click before the first key frame you want to select
  • Hold Shift down and drag

    Moving a range of keyframes
  • Click the middle arrows after selecting a range
  • Drag to new location

    Cutting a range of keyframes
  • Select a range of keyframes using the shift drag
  • Right Mouse Button (RMB) and select Cut

    Copying a range of keyframes
  • Select a range of keyframes using the shift drag
  • Right Mouse Button (RMB) and select Copy

    Paste a keyframe or frames
  • You need to already have a range of keyframes in memory from Cutting or Copying them previously
  • Go to a new frame and Right Mouse Button (RMB) select Paste
    This will paste the keys on top of other keys if they exist

    You can also select a range for the keys to get pasted into - this will scale them to fit the range

    Scaling keyframes (stretching or contracting keys to slow or speed up the animation)
  • Select a range of keyframes by using shift drag
  • Drag the right or left arrow of the range to increase or decrease the time it takes for the animation to occur


    Using the Edit Menu to Cut, Copy or Paste Keyframes

    To cut or copy keyframe:
    Select the Keyframe you want
    Go to Edit - Keys and select Cut or Copy

    To paste keyframes:
    Copy or Cut a keyframe
    Go to the new frame where you want to paste the frames
    Select Edit - Keys and select Paste OPTIONS

    Time range: Start allows you to specify where the pasting should start
    Time range: Start/end allows you to specify a range that the keyframes will scale to fit
    Paste Method: Insert will push over the existing keyframes to make room for the new ones
    Paste Method: Merge will combine the new keyframes with the existing keyframes

Graph Editor:

The Timeline:

Window-->Animation Editors-->Graph Editor


Contains keys, curve segments, and tangents

View-->Frame All will frame entire animation or hit F while in the window
View-->Frame Selected will frame selected attribute (drag a box around a few keypoints)

If no objects are selected, select something in the main modeling window and click on its listing in the Graph Editor
Click the Circle+/- sign to open or close the attributes - the Square+ opens the shape node (not used for this assignment)

Vertical numbers on left side are values of the keys. This is the same value that is in the channel box of a keyframe.
Horizontal numbers are Frames (Time)

You will see one dot per set keyframe in each attribute

The angle of the line means:

  • Line is going up - the value is increasing as the animation plays
  • Line going down - the value is decreasing as the animation plays
  • Line horizontal - there is no increase or decrease in the value over time

    A flat line is called Static Action
    This means that there is no movement at all and a key is not needed.

    To delete a line with no action, click the line and hit Delete

    Always remove all static actions!

    On the left side of the Graph Editor you can select the specific attribute you want to see (Ex: translate x)
    You can select more than one attribute to see at a time
    To see all the attributes at once, click the name of the object at the top of the list

    You can have more than one object selected in the modeling window. They all show up in the graph editor.

    Tangents:

    To see the tangent, select a key point by clicking on it or dragging a box around it
    The brown line on either side of the point are the tangents.

    To move a tangent you need to have the Move Tool selected in the left toolbar.
    Select the tangent point and use your middle mouse button and drag up or down

    Two tangents are attached to all key points (In Tangent and Out Tangent)
    Tangents have a weight and angle (weight effects the pull on the curve)
    Each controls the velocity or speed of change at which an object changes over time
    The In Tangent controls the speed of change coming into the keypoint
    The Out Tangent controls the speed coming out of the keypoint
    Tangents keep continuity unless you break them (when you move one side, the other side will move).

    Setup Prefs to see what the icons mean:
    Window menu - Settings/Preferences - Preferences - Help: Tooltips Enabled

    In order to change a tangent, it must be selected

    Break Tangent
    makes the in tangent and out tangents move independently
    Keys menu - Break Tangent

    Unify Tangent
    makes each side of the tangent act together, dependently
    Keys menu - Unify Tangent

    Lock Tangent Weight
    cannot change the length, can change angle

    Free Tangent Weight
    both weight and angle can be changed

    Tangent Types:

    Spline:
    A curved line is called a Spline Tangent - this allows some flexibility in speed
    as the object travels from keyframe to keyframe (Ease in and Ease Out)

    Linear:
    a straight line is called linear interpolation-there is a constant speed as it goes
    from one keyframe to the next. This movement can appear mechanical.

    Clamped:
    when two key frames are at the same value but a different time, it will make it
    linear, whereas the rest will be curved. (used when two keyframes are very close).

    Stepped:
    the value changes at the key abruptly - used for cuts

    Flat:
    causes the tangent to be horizontal - no change in value

    Plateau:
    curved coming into a flat line and curved going out of it

  • Playblast:
    Window-->Playblast, or RMB on Timeline, choose Playblast

    Will screen capture each frame and save it or show it temporarily

    Will play back sequentially, and save as a Quicktime file or AVI.

    Will animate entire timeline, or specified part of timeline.

    Playblast Options:
    Time range:
    Time Slider - (gets its start and end from the timeline)
    Start/End - You specify the start and end

    View: to see it or not

    Show Ornaments: removes some interface elements from view before it renders it
    * You need to turn off Show Grid in the main window also

    Multi-Camera Output: Used when you have more than one camera created

    Viewer - MoviePlayer (Quicktime on Mac or FCheck on PCs) - we don't use the Image Viewer
    Compression - reduces file size - use H.264 High

    Display Size (Render Globals, Window, custom)
    Scale - can change the size
    Frame Padding - will add zeros infront of the filename

    Remove temporary files - YES
    Save to File - if you want to save it.
    Movie file: give it a name
  • BE CAREFUL these are large files and you want to remove them after you look at them
  • Save them to TempRender on D:

    F-Check
    F-Check will play your animation on the PCs after a Playblast if you don't save it as a Quicktime.

    Close the window after you are done viewing it.

To see the animation by using the PLAY button in Maya (may not play real speed)

Window Playback:
Window-->Settings/Preferences-->Preferences-->Time Slider

Update View:
Active-plays only active window
All--animates all windows

Playback Looping:
RMB on Timeline, choose Playback Looping
Looping - Once, Oscillate (forward and back), Continuous

Always remove all test renders and playblast sequences that are not needed!!!

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Lecture 3: Digital Audio

Creating Audio Soundscapes using Audition:

Start Adobe Audition
Go to New - New Session (notice we are using 44100 khz audio)

We use: 44100, 16 bit, Stereo and save as .wav

To add an Audio clip:
Insert menu - Audio (notice audio format of the audio you are about to import)
Add at least 4 audio clips to your score

In the main window:
click Volume (circle button) to adjust the volume
click the Pan button (circle on right of Volume) to shift the sound from one speaker to the other

M = mute
S = solo (play only this channel)

Right button and drag to move the sound clip

use the >||< on either side of the clip to shorten it

use the little box on the top to adjust the volume (have it fade out and in with 3 points to make a spline
Right click pull down on audio clip to the last item and select spline

Can drag and drop Effects from the Effects tab (the Effects Rack) on the right into the audio clip in the main window.

In the Mixer tab, you can pull down on the arrow and select No Effect to remove the FX

Playing the Audio:
On the bottom of the window in the left is the control panel to Play the audio
(can hit space bar to start and stop)

Zooming in on the track
Zoom window - try all the icons to see what they do

Edit Menu
Cut, Copy, Paste, Delete, Select All
Split - will cut the clip at the playback marker position

Bounce to a New Track - try it
All Audio ...

Insert Time/Delete Time - try it

Clip Menu:
Duplicate
Lock in Time - will not let you move it
Mute - silence it
Remove - will just remove it from the track
Destroy - will get rid of it plus the original sound file
Convert to a Unique Copy
Clip Color - good for organizing your clips

Mixer tab
FX Power ON - can select and FX to add onto your audio channel - pull down arrow
close the FX window when done adjusting the parameters of the FX (it will apply the changes automatically)

You can adjust the Stereo Pan in the Mixer window also

Saving:

File - Save Session (may ask you to mix down your audio first - its OK to do it.

File Export - Audio Mix down - to export it out for Maya

Exercise 1: Download 6 sounds and import into Audition and lay them out over time.

Experiment with mixing the sounds, effects, panning, etc.

Save the session and also Export the Audio Mix Down.

You should end up with a WAV file ready for Maya.

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Lecture 2: Audio, Projects, Hierarchy, Principles

Audio Concepts:

Review AUDITION Features

Music and Variety
Your audio should have variety so that you can create an animation that will keep the audience's interest. Use audio that is soft and loud, dynamic and not dynamic, fast and slow, lots of texture, no texture, high pitch and low pitch. Becareful, too much variety will sound like chaos and too little will be like Techno.

gesture - a sound that draws attention to itself

texture - you can have a number of things happening all at once in music. The texture of a composition can be described by the number and quality of this layering of elements. Sometimes texture can be described as thick or rough or smooth or light texture. You can create a heavy texture by having background and foreground audio and also layering multiple sounds.

rhythm - is the variation in length of the sounds. Rhythm needs time. It also deals with the accentuation of the sounds over time.

melody - patterns of changing pitches and durations of sounds. Melody relates to pitch and requires rhythm to be there.

foreground and background audio - use layers of audio to create a more dynamic texured audio composition

Listen to lots of short audio compositions

Animation / Audio Concepts:

Art and Design concepts as it relates to music

Timing
Ease in Ease Out
Dynamics
How to start and end an animation

Setting Up Projects:

Websites with Good Animations:

File - Project - New Project (or Edit Current)
Change the project location to the D:/students/yourname and name the project
Use default
Accept

3D Textures Floating through the Surface of the Objects

If you use a 3D texture on animated object, the texture will stay in the same position and the object will appear to float through the texture.

Watch an object move through a 3D Textures

This is how you correct this:

  1. Parent the 3D texture to the object



Animating Color and Textures:


Make an object and then open the Windows - Rendering Editors - Hypershade
Make a new lambert shader

In the Attribute Editor, change the color of the texture (only)
Assign the texture to your object

Go to the first frame of the color change and make sure the texture is selected in the Hypergraph and
In the Attribute Editor, RMB on the word Color and Set Key

Go to another frame and then change the color and RMB on Color and Set key
Repeat as often as needed

Remember that when you animate a texture color, it will be animated on the frames you set even if you assign that texture to another object.

Animation Curve Attributes:
If you click the Arrow after Color, you will get to the Anim Curve Attributes which let youchange the frames that the animation occurs on (it takes a little bit of time to update the timeline sometime).

Animating Textures:
To animate the attributes of a texture, you do the same as above to any of the attributes. Use a 2D texture and try it.

Animated Transparency:
Go to the frame you want the fade to start. RMB the word Transparency in the Attribute Editor and Set Key.
Go to the end frame where you want it invisible and Set Key on Transparency.

To Remove the Animated Texture/Color/Transparency:
RMB on the name and Break Connection

To see and manipulate the animation curve in the Graph Editor:
Select the Shader in the Hypershade window
Go to the Attribute Editor and click Select at the bottom of the Attribute Editor
Open the Graph Editor
With your cursor in the window hit F
Make sure the Shader is listed in the Left column
Adjust the curves to make a slow change in and a slow change out (Ease in / Ease Out)

aph editor review

Can use the icons on the left Toolbar (4th from bottom) to jump directly to the Graph Editor

If you have not set your preferences before getting into Maya, (which you should really do), and you set keyframes, you will need to convert your curves to Weighted Tangents:

In the Graph Editor - Curve menu
Convert to Weighted Tangent

Reminder: the line is the change in the value of the parameter over time. You generally want the line to start gradually (spline) and then pick up speed then slow down. If the movement is robotic or abrupt, then you would not have the curve gradually taper as it comes to an end (use linear).

To see the color change curves in the graph editor, you need to have the Texture selected in the Hypershade and then in the Attribute Editor, click Select

Look in the Graph Editor and you will see the RGB values - change them to splines and set the curves

Hierarchy and Grouping

Grouping objects:

Select the objects you want to group together and Edit Menu - Group or Control G
This creates a node and all objects are under this new node (don't forget to name it)

A group is useful if you want to animate a bunch of objects as a complete whole.
You can also animate the individual object by going into the group and setting keys on the individual object.

Ex: Set some keys on the group then go into the Outliner and set keys on an individual object.

Parenting objects:

Select the child first then the parent last (shift click)
Edit Menu - Parent or hit p
This makes the second object you selected the main node that will control the child object

You can animate the parent and the child will also animate but you can also go in and animate the child individually

You can also Middle Mouse button drag an object into the parent to make it a child

Make sure you center your pivots after grouping or parenting an object

You must select the group by selecting it in the Outliner before you move, rotate or scale it. You can just click the parent object to select it and you will control the child objects too.
Importing sound to Maya
Put the sound file into Maya - projects - YourProject - sound folder on the D:/students/yourname/yourproject/

File - Import

Select Audio All Formats
Select the sound file

Go to the Timeline and RMB and select Sound then select the name of your sound
It will show up in the timeline

Go to Window - Settings/Preferences - Preferences and select Timeline
Change Height to make it taller to see the audio better

Offset sound
Go to the Timeline and RMB and select Sound then select the name of your sound then OPTIONS

In the Attribute Editor you can change the Offset to move the starting time of your audio by the number of frames you say.
Exercise 1: Synchronization
  1. Make an object like a torus or sphere
  2. Move it from the center
  3. hit INSERT to place the pivot point in the middle of the scene
  4. hit INSERT again to turn it off
  5. With the object selected, Edit menu - Duplicate Special OPTIONS
  6. Edit - Reset
  7. Change the Rotate Y to 60 and make 6 copies
  8. Import a sound and increase your timeline Height
  9. Make another object and place it in the center
  10. Parent all your objects to this center object
  11. Each time you have a strong beat, make something happen to at least one of your objects
  12. You need to do each of the following at least once:
  13. Change the color
  14. Change the size
  15. Change the position
  16. Change the rotation
  17. Set keys on the Parent for at least one beat in your composition (we should see all elements effected)
  18. Save this file to turn in to the homework folder

Go back to theTop Menu

Lecture 4: Audio, Projects, Hierarchy, Principles

Audio Concepts:

Review AUDITION Features

Music and Variety
Your audio should have variety so that you can create an animation that will keep the audience's interest. Use audio that is soft and loud, dynamic and not dynamic, fast and slow, lots of texture, no texture, high pitch and low pitch. Becareful, too much variety will sound like chaos and too little will be like Techno.

gesture - a sound that draws attention to itself

texture - you can have a number of things happening all at once in music. The texture of a composition can be described by the number and quality of this layering of elements. Sometimes texture can be described as thick or rough or smooth or light texture. You can create a heavy texture by having background and foreground audio and also layering multiple sounds.

rhythm - is the variation in length of the sounds. Rhythm needs time. It also deals with the accentuation of the sounds over time.

melody - patterns of changing pitches and durations of sounds. Melody relates to pitch and requires rhythm to be there.

foreground and background audio - use layers of audio to create a more dynamic texured audio composition

Listen to lots of short audio compositions

Animation / Audio Concepts:

Art and Design concepts as it relates to music

Timing
Ease in Ease Out
Dynamics
How to start and end an animation

Setting Up Projects:

Websites with Good Animations:

File - Project - New Project (or Edit Current)
Change the project location to the D:/students/yourname and name the project
Use default
Accept

3D Textures Floating through the Surface of the Objects

If you use a 3D texture on animated object, the texture will stay in the same position and the object will appear to float through the texture.

Watch an object move through a 3D Textures

This is how you correct this:

  1. Parent the 3D texture to the object



Animating Color and Textures:


Make an object and then open the Windows - Rendering Editors - Hypershade
Make a new lambert shader

In the Attribute Editor, change the color of the texture (only)
Assign the texture to your object

Go to the first frame of the color change and make sure the texture is selected in the Hypergraph and
In the Attribute Editor, RMB on the word Color and Set Key

Go to another frame and then change the color and RMB on Color and Set key
Repeat as often as needed

Remember that when you animate a texture color, it will be animated on the frames you set even if you assign that texture to another object.

Animation Curve Attributes:
If you click the Arrow after Color, you will get to the Anim Curve Attributes which let youchange the frames that the animation occurs on (it takes a little bit of time to update the timeline sometime).

Animating Textures:
To animate the attributes of a texture, you do the same as above to any of the attributes. Use a 2D texture and try it.

Animated Transparency:
Go to the frame you want the fade to start. RMB the word Transparency in the Attribute Editor and Set Key.
Go to the end frame where you want it invisible and Set Key on Transparency.

To Remove the Animated Texture/Color/Transparency:
RMB on the name and Break Connection

To see and manipulate the animation curve in the Graph Editor:
Select the Shader in the Hypershade window
Go to the Attribute Editor and click Select at the bottom of the Attribute Editor
Open the Graph Editor
With your cursor in the window hit F
Make sure the Shader is listed in the Left column
Adjust the curves to make a slow change in and a slow change out (Ease in / Ease Out)

aph editor review

Can use the icons on the left Toolbar (4th from bottom) to jump directly to the Graph Editor

If you have not set your preferences before getting into Maya, (which you should really do), and you set keyframes, you will need to convert your curves to Weighted Tangents:

In the Graph Editor - Curve menu
Convert to Weighted Tangent

Reminder: the line is the change in the value of the parameter over time. You generally want the line to start gradually (spline) and then pick up speed then slow down. If the movement is robotic or abrupt, then you would not have the curve gradually taper as it comes to an end (use linear).

To see the color change curves in the graph editor, you need to have the Texture selected in the Hypershade and then in the Attribute Editor, click Select

Look in the Graph Editor and you will see the RGB values - change them to splines and set the curves

Hierarchy and Grouping

Grouping objects:

Select the objects you want to group together and Edit Menu - Group or Control G
This creates a node and all objects are under this new node (don't forget to name it)

A group is useful if you want to animate a bunch of objects as a complete whole.
You can also animate the individual object by going into the group and setting keys on the individual object.

Ex: Set some keys on the group then go into the Outliner and set keys on an individual object.

Parenting objects:

Select the child first then the parent last (shift click)
Edit Menu - Parent or hit p
This makes the second object you selected the main node that will control the child object

You can animate the parent and the child will also animate but you can also go in and animate the child individually

You can also Middle Mouse button drag an object into the parent to make it a child

Make sure you center your pivots after grouping or parenting an object

You must select the group by selecting it in the Outliner before you move, rotate or scale it. You can just click the parent object to select it and you will control the child objects too.
Importing sound to Maya
Put the sound file into Maya - projects - YourProject - sound folder on the D:/students/yourname/yourproject/

File - Import

Select Audio All Formats
Select the sound file

Go to the Timeline and RMB and select Sound then select the name of your sound
It will show up in the timeline

Go to Window - Settings/Preferences - Preferences and select Timeline
Change Height to make it taller to see the audio better

Offset sound
Go to the Timeline and RMB and select Sound then select the name of your sound then OPTIONS

In the Attribute Editor you can change the Offset to move the starting time of your audio by the number of frames you say.
Exercise 1: Synchronization
  1. Make an object like a torus or sphere
  2. Move it from the center
  3. hit INSERT to place the pivot point in the middle of the scene
  4. hit INSERT again to turn it off
  5. With the object selected, Edit menu - Duplicate Special OPTIONS
  6. Edit - Reset
  7. Change the Rotate Y to 60 and make 6 copies
  8. Import a sound and increase your timeline Height
  9. Make another object and place it in the center
  10. Parent all your objects to this center object
  11. Each time you have a strong beat, make something happen to at least one of your objects
  12. You need to do each of the following at least once:
  13. Change the color
  14. Change the size
  15. Change the position
  16. Change the rotation
  17. Set keys on the Parent for at least one beat in your composition (we should see all elements effected)
  18. Save this file to turn in to the homework folder

Go back to theTop Menu

Lecture 12: Making a Playable DVD

Preparing the files

Your DVD should include:

  • AnimOptic abstract animation
  • Obstacle Course ball bounce animation
  • Final Inanimate Object animation
    Make Movie in After Effects using the following format
    MPEG2-DVD

    No need to change the default format parameters in the MPEG Format Options window

    It will create 4 files per animation: .m2v .wav .xmp .xmpses (the last 2 are for chapter info for Encore)
    You will only use the .wav and .m2v files
  • Making the DVD
    In Adobe Encore:

    File - New Project
    Select NTSC

    File Import as Asset
    Import both the video and audio file
    Save As (saves the project)

    Click the Library Tab in the bottom right palette (if its not there, Window menu - Library
    Click each icon to see the different elements that are available to use
  • Menus
  • Buttons
  • Images
  • Backgrounds
  • Layer sets
  • Text items
  • Shapes

  • To use a default menu template:

    Click the Menu icon and choose a set
    Look at all the templates to get one that would work for you (you probably need a Submenu-type template)
    DO NOT select a WIDE template

    Double click the template you want

    The Tool Palette lets you select the buttons, parts of the buttons, and edit the Text (depending on what tool you pick)

    Delete button if you need to by clicking them and hitting the Backspace (Delete) key on your keyboard
    Duplicate the buttons (Edit- Duplicate) till you end up with the number of buttons you need.

    Use the Text Tool to rename the buttons and captions

    Select a button and use Edit-Rename to change the name of the button in the program
    Open the Layers Tab to see the new names

    Drag a video from the Projects window to the middle of the button and drop it off.

    If you miss, it will make a new default button with the video attached.

    With the button selected, look in the Properties Palette and you will see the parameter Link has a link to the video

    Click the Timeline Tab in the Project window and doubleclick a video to see it play
    Drag the audio file (.wav) from the Project Window to the Audio Layer under the video in the Timeline window

    If you used a submenu template, you will not need the Main Menu button, Delete it
    By default, when your video finishes playing it goes back to the Main Menu
    You can change that if you need to (no need to here)


    Test the DVD:

    Click the little icon with the grey circle and arrow in the Tool Palette.
    Close the Preview Window when done

    Save the Project: File - Save


    To Burn the DVD

    Click the Disk tab in Project Window and Name the DVD

    Insert a Blank DVD

    Click Build Project
    Save and Continue
    If it says you have problems, View it and click Start
    Remove the bad items or fix the problems

    In the Make DVD Disk dialog box, Use Current Project
    Make sure the correct DVD recorder says: F:PHILIPS DVD+-RW
    NEXT
    Build
    To Make a Custom Template

    Method 1:
    Take the photoshop template provided here (DVDTemplate)

    In Photoshop:
    Change the images and text on all the existing layers

    WARNING: DO NOT change the names or the order of the layers because it will not work in Encore if you do.

    In Encore:
    File - Import as Menu
    Method 2:
    Go to the Library Tab and click the Menu icon
    In the General set, select 4x3 Blank Menu.psd
    Add items such as Button, images, background, and text from the icon subset
    Method 3:
    Library Tab - menu icon
    Select a template that is close to what you want (doubleclick it)
    Look at the Layers tab to see the psd layers
    File - Import as Asset to get a new image you want to add to the layers
    Select the Layers Palette and drag it to the Menu window
    Object Menu - Arrange (the top menu choices of the application) to reorder the item
    Replace the text using the Text Tool and add new text
    Edit the text using the Window - Character menu choice (at top)
    Change the style by selecting the object and then the Styles tab
    Select a new style and hit the Apply icon (the little arrow)

    If you want a new image the size of the DVD menu you need to:
    In Photoshop
    File - New
    Select Preset: Film & Video NTSC DV
    Don't worry about the Warning that comes up
    Make an image then Save As a photoshop file.

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