Course notes
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 Lectures:
Lecture 1: Timing and Trajectory Charts Lecture 7: Flash Intro
Lecture 2: Presentations: List of Animators Lecture 8: Flash Animation
Lecture 3: Scanning, After Effects, Animating using PS CS3 Lecture 9: ---
Lecture 4: Stop Motion Pixelation using a Video Camera Lecture 10: ---
Lecture 5: After Effects Part 1 Lecture 11: ---
Lecture 6: After Effects Part 2 Lecture 12: ---
 Lecture 3: Scanning, After Effects, Photoshop CS3 Animation
 
Scanning Cards:
Scan each card, number them sequentially and save in a folder.
  1. In Photoshop - File - Import - ScanGear 7.0.1X...
  2. Place card on the scanner in the bottom left corner
  3. Click Advanced Mode
    • Output Resolution: 72
    • Full Platen
    • Click Preview
    • Selection Width 6.00 Height 4.00

    • In the Setting tab: click Descreen ON and UnSharp Mask OFF

    • Align the selected area, and SCAN

  4. Take the card out and put new card in and SCAN
  5. Repeat forever (ha ha)
  6. SAVE each card as TIF - Each file should be named image_001.tif, image_002.tif, etc.
After Effects

      Projects (.aep) - only one can be opened at a time
      A project holds all the pieces of your animation

      Importing your scanned images:
       (import only creates a link to the file *Don't move or rename source files or layers!)      
      Move all your files to the local drive and put them all in organized folders before Importing

      File - Import - File
      Select first file of the sequence
      Change Import As to Footage
      Click TIF Sequence
      Open
                  
      In the Project window you can rearrange the order of files by dragging them up or down.

      File information is next to the thumbnail image in the Project window
      (information varies depending on the file type)

      Save your Project - File - Save As
      Name it and save it in the same place as your scanned files

Working with Compositions
Composition Menu
      Select New Composition
      Composition Settings
            Name the file (username_comp)

Custom size 432 x 288 Square Pixels
      Frame Rate - 15
      Resolution - Full
      Duration - specify how long you want the piece
            0:00:06:20 = 0 hours, 0 minutes, 6 seconds, 20 frames
      OK
      
The Composition window:
Shows the animation
You can drag files from the Project into the Composition Window (it snaps in place)
      
Composition Settings
      Composition - Composition Settings
            Can change resolution or duration

Timeline
      Numbers in Blue on top left = current time
       Top of timeline sliders:
             Top one is entire view (whole animation)
             Next slider is work area (the area you want to work in and see as preview)
Timeline Tips
In the TimeLine:
Can change the order of the layers
      Drag a layer by its name to a new position

Can effect the visibility and moveability of a layer
      Click Eyeball - visuals ON/OFF
      Click speaker - audio ON/OFF
      Click circle - turn all others OFF and only show this layer
      Click lock - can't effect this layer with changes

Can click the Layer Name to see the Source Name
      Select name and hit RETURN then change the name then hit RETURN again

Home - go to beginning of timeline
End - go to end of timeline

Useful Buttons in the TimeLine
      Zooming in and out (Bottom of Timeline):
      Little mountain = zoom out
      Big mountain = zoom in
      Slider = zoom adjustment

Navigating in the timeline:
Can jump to a new location by typing in a new number (blue numbers on left)

Watching the Animation
To do a Preview:
Make sure you have slide the work area slider to the section you want to Preview
      Move top slider on timeline
      Turn on/off all layers you want to see /not see
      Click the RAM Preview Button (or hit 0)
            it runs through once putting it in memory and then plays fine
      May have to set the Resolution to half

To do a regular preview hit the Space Key

Can preview as a wireframe to get faster playback (good for studying motion)

Set the Preview Options:
Composition - Preview - Wireframe Preview

To change total time of animation:
Composition - Composition Settings
To Render a final Movie
Save the Project before making a movie
      Quit all other Applications

      Composition menu - Make Movie
      Name it - name.mov
      Save it to the same place you saved your files (it will take up lots of space)
      Don't worry about the Save as Type box we will change this later

Click Render Settings - Best Settings (blue)
      Quality = Best
      Resolution = Full
      * Time Span - Length of Comp (make sure Composition Settings is correct) or use the Work Area Only
      Frame Rate - 15 - OK
      
Click Output Module - Lossless (blue)
      Format - Quicktime Movie (this automatically throws you into the Compression Settings)
      if you have to get back into a second time to change anything, select the Video Output Format Options
            Compression type:
                  Select Animation
            Make sure it is Millions of colors NOT Millions+ OK
            Quality = High NOT Best - OK
      OK

Click Audio Output ON

Click Output to: to change the name or where you want to save it

Open Current Render Details by clicking the arrow in the window
Click Render

Animating using Photoshop CS3
To create a hand drawn animation using Photoshop CS3 Frame Animation

In Photoshop, open Window menu - Animation

Make sure it is in Frame Animation mode - Animation (Frames)
if not, Animation Palette Menu - Convert to Frame Animation

You need to have your Layer palette open and work with both the Animation palette and layer palette

Different ways to animate using the layers:
  • Turn layers on or off for each frame
  • Move the layers - drag it around with the pointer tool
  • Change Layer Opacity in the frame - in the layer palette
    can select more than 1 frame and drag the layer around
  • Change Layer Blending Mode in each frame
  • Add a style to the layer

    Steps to making an animation
  • Make new layer - change opacity to 75
  • draw on the layer
  • duplicate the layer and move the object or erase and redraw the object in new spot
    you can also make a new layer but you need to set the opacity to 75 again
  • repeat the previous step till you have a nice stack of layers
  • go to the Animation (Frames) palette and select the first frame
  • turn on or off the layers you want to be visible in this frame
  • Duplicate the frame by clicking the icon in the bottom of the palette
  • Turn off and on layers for each frame duplicated

    When you click the duplicate icon on the bottom it will duplicate the single frame or the series of frames you select

    If you select more than 1 frame, it will put them after the last frame you selected

    To insert new frames in the middle (Tweening)
  • Select the frame that you want the frames to go before
  • click the Tweens Animation Frames icon in the Animation palette
  • Select Previous frames, type number of frames, and only select the parameter that you want to change

    If you select:
  • a single frame it asks you were to put the additional frames
  • two contiguous frames, it puts the new frames in the middle
  • more than 3 or more frames, it replaces the middle frames with the new interpolated frames using
    the outer frames as the ones to determine the tweening

    The tween options:
    Layers:
  • all layers will make inbetweens for all layers in the frame
  • selected layers makes inbetweens for only the selected layers in the layer palette

    Parameters:
  • Select from position, opacity, or effects or a combination of the all

    To set the delay select one or more frames
  • (you can slect noncontiguous frames by using the Command click on Mac or Ctl click on PC)
  • Pull down on the delay number to select a new time delay

    To set the loop
  • Pull down on the menu with Once in it to select Once, Forever or Other...

    Changing the order of the frames
  • Drag the frame to a new spot in the row of frames

    Reversing the frames
  • Select frames (can select frames that are not contiguous)
  • Animation palette menu - Reverse frames

    To delete frames
  • Drag the drag to the trash or
  • select the frame and click the trash or
  • Animation palette menu - Delete Frame

    Changing the position of a layer in all frames
  • If you had a ground plane in all frames and wanted to change it in all frames you need to Unify the position
  • Select a frame
  • move the layer to correct spot
  • Go to the Layer palette and click the icon Unify: Unify Layer Position
  • (all other layers that contain that layer visible will show the new position of the layer)
  • This is an on/off toggle switch and the movement of this layer will always be linked to all layers unless it is turned off

    To turn on or off a layer on all frames:
  • Select a frame
  • turn the layer on or off
  • Go to the Layer palette and click the icon Unify: Unify layer visibility
  • (all other layers will either show or not show that layer)
  • Toggle it on or off for that layer

    To turn on or off a layer effect such as drop shadow on all frames:
  • Select a frame
  • apply an effect by double clicking the icon of the layer
  • Go to the Layer palette and click ON the Unify: Unify layer style
  • (all other layers will either show or not show that layer effect)

    To make changes to all frames based on the movement or visibility of the first frame:
  • Select first frame
  • Select layer and make sure that Propogate Frame 1 is checked in the Layer palette
  • Move the layer and watch the rest of the frames with that layer visible move
  • They will move relative to where they are placed
  • Click the layer off and on
  • It will turn the visual on all other frames that have that layer on and off
  • It does not work with effects

    You can also select a range of frames
    Select a layer
    Animation palette menu - Match Layer across frames
  • it will set the position, visibility or style across all the frames you select

    Cut, Copy, Paste Frames
    Select one or more frames
    Animation palette menu - Copy Frame
    Select the frame to indicate where you want to paste it
    Animation palette menu - Paste Frame
    Tell it where to paste it, Replace Frames, Paste over, Paste before, Paste after

    Adding a new layer each time you make a frame:
    Each time you want to add a new frame it is helpful to have a new layer if you are drawing frame by frame animation
    Under the animation palette menu - select:
  • Create new layer for each new frame
    You will still have to turn off the old frame layer eye

    You can also turn on
    New layers visible in all frames
    all newly created frames will appear in all frames

    Increase size of frame view
  • Animation palette menu - Palette Options

    If you created animation by moving an object and now need the individual layers so you can go back and draw on each layer, you need to:
    Animation palette menu - Flatten Frames into Layers
  • it turns the layer eye on and off for all frames
  • Timeline Tweened Animation
    Animation palette menu:
    Convert to Timeline (if its in the Frame Animation mode)

    Document Timeline settings - how long will it be, and set frame rate to Custom 15 so you don't have to draw so many
    You can use 30 if you are only doing Tweened (no frame by frame drawing)

    Dragging the top blue edges of the timeline will define the work area

    Steps to make a tweened animation Add a layer (Layer palette)

    Add content to the layer
    Draw on the layer

    Select a frame by moving the blue slider

    Open the arrow on the layer in the Animation palette
    Click the stopwatch to turn on animation for that attribute

    Go to a frame, move the object and it will set a key for you
    repeat this (go to the frame, move it) till you have an animation

    Try this with Position, Opacity and Style

  • You can set a key frame by clicking the diamond between the two arrows on the left
  • Add additional layers animating their parameters
  • Adjust where the layer should first show up and then be gone by dragging its right and left edges inward
  • You can jump to a key frame by holding down the Shift key and dragging in the timeline

    When you click the keyframe it turns yellow, you can then Copy then Paste the Key frame to a new
    spot on the timeline

    You can move the selected keyframes and delete them
    Right mouse button click them

    You can also change the interpolation mode of the selected keyframe
    Animation palette - Keyframe Interpolation ...
    • Linear (robotic - not natural)
    • Hold (like stepped in Maya)
    You can animate the global lighting style
    Layer - Layer Style - Global Lighting
    This is used by drop shadow, inner shadow and some others

    You can convert this to Frame Animation but it may change a few layer properties and keyframe settings
  • Timeline Hand Drawn Animation

    To create an animation by drawing on each individual frame, this method works best.

    Add a new layer
    Layer menu - Video Layers - New Blank Video layer (used for creating handdrawn animation frame by frame)

    Select the new Video layer in the layer palette
  • Draw on that layer

    Open the Video layer in the animation palette
  • The altered video layer should show a mark where you added an image

    You can then duplicate the frame or just go to the next frame and draw again
    Layer menu - Video Layers - duplicate frame

    repeat drawing on new frames till your animation is done



    Adding a new blank frame in between existing frames
  • Position the blue timeline slider
  • Layer menu - Video Layers - Insert blank frame

    Deleting a frame
  • Position the blue timeline slider
  • Layer menu - Video Layers - Delete frame


    Onion Skinning
  • Click Animation palette - Enable Onion Skins ON
  • Change Onion Skin Options
  • I usually use 5 Frames Before and 0 Frames After

    Removing the paint strokes on a frame
  • Layer menu - Video Layers - Restore frame
  • Layer menu - Video Layers - Restore All frames

    You cannot convert this to Frame Animation

  • Setting Shortcuts
    Since you will be adding a new frame a LOT, it is good to set a shortcut for it

    Go to Edit menu - Keyboard Short cuts... - Application Menus
    • Open Layer
    • Scroll way down and find Video Layers>
    • Click on Insert Blank Frame and hold down Ctrl + Option + Command and hit a key
    • remember this key - OK
    Exporting the Final Animation
    File - Export - Render Video
    Name it
    Select where you want to save it (select folder)

    Click Quicktime Export - Settings
    • Video Settings
    • Compression:
      • Animation for solid colored small animations - less compression
      • H.264 for animations for the web
      • Sorenson 3 - for faster playback - might be pixelly
    • Frame Rate = Current or 15 fps
    • Compressor = High NOT Best
    • OK
    No Optimize for Internet Streaming - OK

    Set size or use Document size
    You can set the range to render
    You can also set the Alpha - transparency
    Set Frame Rate or use the Document Frame Rate

    Render